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Year : 2016  |  Volume : 5  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 1-4

Injury epidemiology at a trauma center in Southwest Nigeria

1 Department of Orthopaedic Surgery and Trauma, Ondo State Trauma and Surgical Centre, Ondo, Nigeria
2 Department of Community Health, State Specialist Hospital, Ondo, Nigeria

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Adetunji M Toluse
Department of Orthopaedic Surgery and Trauma, National Orthopaedic Hospital, P.M.B. 2009, Yaba, Lagos State
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/1597-1112.195446

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Background: Trauma is a leading cause of emergency room visits in Nigeria and results in significant morbidity and mortality. Aims: This study aimed to identify the demographics, pattern, and outcome of injuries in patients seen within a year. Settings and Design: A prospective cross-sectional study design was employed of consecutive patients at a new Trauma Centre in Ondo State, Southwest Nigeria. Patients and Methods: Convenient sampling of consecutive patients seen at the Accident and Emergency (A and E) Department over a 12-month period from February 2014 to January 2015 was done prospectively, and entered into a structured pro forma. Statistical Analysis: Data collected were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 16. Simple frequency, Chi-square test, and Spearman correlation were done. Outcome measures were mortality and duration of hospital stay. Results: A total of 657 patients that attended the A and E were recruited and analyzed. The mean age was 33 ± 16 years. Four hundred and fifty (68.5%) were young adults (age range 15-45). Five hundred and two (767.5%) were males. Trauma due to road traffic crash accounted for 68.5% of the injuries. Gunshot, fall from height, assault, burns, and occupational injuries accounted for the rest. The injury severity score (ISS) ranges were 1-9 (60.4%), 10-15 (15.1%), 16-24 (18.6%), and >25 (5.9). Five hundred and forty (82.2%) were discharged within 2 weeks of admission. Overall mortality was 11.0%. Spearman's correlation showed a relationship between the ISS and the duration of hospital stay (r = 0.261, P < 0.001). Likelihood Chi-square tests also showed association between ISS and mortality χ2 = 193.8, P < 0.001. Conclusion: Road traffic accidents remain the leading cause of trauma in our country, especially among young adults. Preventive measures should be improved to reduce this scourge. Universal health insurance coverage should be embarked on to reduce the incidence of "discharge against medical advice."

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